Between 2007 and 2012, 200 of America’s most politically active corporations spent a combined $5.8 billion on federal lobbying and campaign contributions. A year-long analysis by the Sunlight Foundation suggests, however, that what they gave pales compared to what those same corporations got: $4.4 trillion in federal business and support.

That figure, more than the $4.3 trillion the federal government paid the nation’s 50 million Social Security recipients over the same period, is the result of an unprecedented effort to quantify the less-examined side of the campaign finance equation: Do political donors get something in return for what they give?

Four years ago, the U.S. Supreme Court suggested the answer to that question was no. Corporate spending to influence federal elections would not “give rise to corruption or the appearance of corruption,” the majority wrote in the landmark Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission decision.

Sunlight decided to test that premise by examining influence and its potential results on federal decision makers over six years, three before the 2010 Citizens United decision and three after.

Read more on the Sunlight Foundation Blog

The Data

Below is a table representing the summary totals involved. All data is downloadable, and is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-NC-SA license. By downloading data, you are agreeing to the terms of the license. Federal campaign finance and lobbying data must be attributed to OpenSecrets.org.

For clarification on column names, please refer to the data dictionary below

Rank
Organization
Contrib-
utions
Lobbying
Total Influence
Hill Cover-
age
Federal Business
Federal Support
Effective Tax Rate
State Subsidies
1 Goldman Sachs $16.5 M $21.4 M $38.0 M 46% $21.7 B $207.7 B 23%
2 Bank of America $12.6 M $32.6 M $45.2 M 44% $19.1 B $457.1 B
3 AT&T Inc $12.4 M $99.4 M $111.9 M 88% $2.0 B $1.8 M 6%
4 Honeywell International $10.4 M $38.4 M $48.9 M 88% $10.0 B $47.3 M 8%
5 JPMorgan Chase & Co $10.4 M $41.6 M $52.1 M 43% $18.0 B $485.6 B 25%
6 Microsoft Corp $9.8 M $47.0 M $56.8 M 58% $715.5 M $7.0 M
7 Comcast Corp $9.8 M $81.3 M $91.1 M 76% $27.3 M $0 24%
8 Deloitte LLP $9.1 M $15.1 M $24.2 M 64% $6.4 B $44.8 M
9 Lockheed Martin $8.6 M $84.1 M $92.7 M 80% $204.2 B $127.8 M 18%
10 Morgan Stanley $8.5 M $16.9 M $25.4 M 37% $11.6 B $115.9 B
11 Boeing Co $8.2 M $95.5 M $103.7 M 72% $187.9 B $167.7 M 2%
12 PricewaterhouseCoopers $7.8 M $15.9 M $23.7 M 52% $982.3 M $297.4 k
13 General Electric $7.6 M $151.5 M $159.1 M 75% $23.5 B $19.6 B 9%
14 Verizon Communications $7.2 M $97.5 M $104.7 M 72% $2.0 B $1.5 B 2%
15 Citigroup Inc $7.0 M $37.1 M $44.2 M 35% $2.4 B $503.4 B
16 United Parcel Service $6.9 M $31.4 M $38.4 M 87% $784.0 M $304.9 k 28%
17 Northrop Grumman $6.8 M $93.3 M $100.2 M 55% $88.6 B $7.6 M 24%
18 Blue Cross/Blue Shield $6.7 M $116.5 M $123.2 M 60% $1.2 B $608.7 k
19 Raytheon Co $6.6 M $41.7 M $48.4 M 58% $87.5 B $87.8 M 16%
20 New York Life Insurance $6.4 M $32.3 M $38.7 M 46% $0 $0
21 Koch Industries $6.4 M $64.5 M $70.9 M 33% $51.3 M $0
22 American Crystal Sugar $6.3 M $6.8 M $13.1 M 50% $0 $153.7 M
23 Ernst & Young $6.2 M $13.6 M $19.9 M 41% $188.5 M $0
24 Blackstone Group $6.1 M $38.5 M $44.6 M 18% $275.9 M $0
25 Google Inc $5.9 M $41.5 M $47.4 M 24% $825.3 k $0
26 Chevron Corp $5.9 M $75.0 M $80.9 M 29% $2.0 B $28.7 M 22%
27 Oracle Corp $5.7 M $34.1 M $39.9 M 21% $1.1 B $68.0 k 27%
28 AFLAC Inc $5.7 M $24.7 M $30.4 M 61% $0 $0
29 Pfizer Inc $5.5 M $88.5 M $94.1 M 52% $4.1 B $0
30 Exxon Mobil $5.5 M $111.5 M $117.1 M 44% $6.4 B $0 14%
31 Berkshire Hathaway $5.5 M $51.4 M $56.9 M 39% $37.5 M $28.5 M
32 Wells Fargo $5.2 M $27.3 M $32.5 M 41% $22.2 B $189.0 B 12%
33 Wal-Mart Stores $5.1 M $37.1 M $42.3 M 55% $682.5 k $0 29%
34 General Dynamics $5.0 M $59.3 M $64.3 M 48% $61.6 B $88.7 M 29%
35 McKesson Corp $5.0 M $10.7 M $15.7 M 33% $29.5 B $0 15%
36 Home Depot $4.8 M $6.3 M $11.1 M 45% $12.3 M $0 33%
37 Credit Suisse Group $4.7 M $12.2 M $16.9 M 25% $638.4 M $224.5 B
38 Union Pacific Corp $4.6 M $40.5 M $45.1 M 48% $2.0 M $642.5 k 17%
39 Amgen Inc $4.4 M $68.4 M $72.9 M 46% $2.4 M $0
40 CSX Corp $4.3 M $26.5 M $30.8 M 46% $15.0 M $23.5 M 13%
41 FedEx Corp $4.1 M $81.4 M $85.5 M 47% $9.2 B $7.5 M 4%
42 Altria Group $4.0 M $75.1 M $79.1 M 44% $962.6 k $0 37%
43 News Corp $3.9 M $34.2 M $35.1 M 22% $6.8 M $0
44 United Technologies $3.9 M $66.5 M $70.4 M 44% $45.2 B $170.7 M 11%
45 Exelon Corp $3.9 M $33.7 M $37.6 M 26% $96.4 M $195.1 M 12%
46 Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance $3.7 M $19.1 M $22.8 M 30% $41.2 k $291.5 M
47 Marriott International $3.6 M $4.8 M $8.4 M 21% $42.7 M $0
48 Norfolk Southern $3.6 M $36.6 M $40.2 M 35% $772.8 k $4.1 M 18%
49 Anheuser-Busch InBev $3.6 M $20.2 M $23.8 M 54% $322.5 k $0
50 Merck & Co $3.5 M $43.1 M $46.6 M 38% $8.4 B $0 17%
51 USAA $3.5 M $34.9 M $38.4 M 30% $175.0 M $0
52 Cisco Systems $3.4 M $11.6 M $15.0 M 22% $19.8 M $0
53 KPMG LLP $3.4 M $10.4 M $13.7 M 28% $1.0 B $4.9 M
54 UBS AG $3.3 M $3.7 M $7.0 M 28% $10.0 B $239.1 B
55 UnitedHealth Group $3.2 M $23.5 M $26.8 M 26% $356.0 M $0 33%
56 Abbott Laboratories $3.2 M $30.2 M $33.4 M 27% $452.1 M $0
57 BAE Systems $3.1 M $31.4 M $34.6 M 31% $44.2 B $65.6 M
58 Ford Motor Co $3.0 M $40.9 M $43.9 M 38% $2.8 B $20.8 B
59 Metlife Inc $3.0 M $32.9 M $35.9 M 33% $3.6 M $20.5 B
60 Hewlett-Packard $3.0 M $35.1 M $38.2 M 33% $8.0 B $19.1 M
61 SAIC Inc $2.9 M $17.2 M $20.1 M 26% $30.5 B $31.5 M 30%
62 Johnson & Johnson $2.9 M $39.7 M $42.6 M 36% $149.3 M $0
63 Eli Lilly & Co $2.9 M $56.4 M $59.3 M 36% $366.5 k $16.6 M 15%
64 Time Warner $2.8 M $25.8 M $28.6 M 31% $10.9 M $0 18%
65 Accenture $2.8 M $19.4 M $22.2 M 31% $5.2 B $6.1 M
66 Intel Corp $2.8 M $19.1 M $21.8 M 21% $268.9 k $50.1 M 27%
67 CME Group $2.8 M $13.0 M $15.7 M 35% $0 $0
68 GlaxoSmithKline $2.7 M $40.4 M $43.2 M 39% $3.8 B $-173.0
69 AstraZeneca PLC $2.7 M $31.1 M $33.8 M 34% $1.8 M $0
70 McDonald's Corp $2.7 M $6.0 M $8.7 M 29% $0 $203.5 M 33%
71 Occidental Petroleum $2.7 M $21.8 M $24.5 M 22% $0 $0 10%
72 Dominion Resources $2.6 M $10.6 M $13.2 M 27% $318.4 M $4.5 M 18%
73 Carlyle Group $2.6 M $6.0 M $8.6 M 11% $19.2 B $0
74 Bank of New York Mellon $2.6 M $6.7 M $9.3 M 21% $6.9 M $54.4 B
75 Southern Co $2.5 M $83.7 M $86.2 M 27% $146.8 M $450.8 M 11%
76 Chesapeake Energy $2.5 M $9.2 M $11.7 M 24% $0 $0 5%
77 IntercontinentalExchange Inc $2.5 M $5.8 M $8.3 M 6% $0 $0
78 American Express $2.5 M $17.9 M $20.3 M 29% $2.8 M $9.0 B 17%
79 Deutsche Bank AG $2.4 M $7.3 M $9.7 M 11% $11.8 B $316.4 B
80 Valero Energy $2.4 M $4.0 M $6.4 M 21% $6.2 B $0
81 American Electric Power $2.4 M $48.4 M $50.8 M 27% $42.6 M $17.5 M 6%
82 Caterpillar Inc $2.3 M $17.8 M $20.1 M 26% $3.2 B $759.4 M
83 Bechtel Group $2.3 M $2.6 M $5.0 M 24% $30.2 B $2.4 M
84 Walt Disney Co $2.3 M $27.5 M $29.9 M 23% $65.0 k $10.0 k 27%
85 MGM Resorts International $2.3 M $2.6 M $4.9 M 8% $812.6 k $0
86 Humana Inc $2.2 M $10.9 M $13.1 M 27% $20.6 B $0 37%
87 Capital One Financial $2.2 M $9.0 M $11.2 M 24% $0 $3.6 B 24%
88 Aetna Inc $2.2 M $19.8 M $22.0 M 18% $725.2 k $0 29%
89 DISH Network $2.2 M $5.6 M $7.8 M 12% $797.2 k $0 13%
90 Cerberus Capital Management $2.2 M $14.3 M $16.5 M 13% $8.7 B $0
91 Duke Energy $2.1 M $33.9 M $36.0 M 24% $117.5 M $229.7 M 3%
92 Deere & Co $2.1 M $10.4 M $12.5 M 24% $1.4 B $163.3 M 30%
93 Travelers Companies $2.1 M $21.6 M $23.7 M 19% $19.2 M $0 16%
94 FMR Corp $2.1 M $16.8 M $18.9 M 26% $5.4 B $0
95 FirstEnergy Corp $2.1 M $12.0 M $14.1 M 19% $180.2 M $58.4 M 3%
96 Qualcomm Inc $2.1 M $38.6 M $40.6 M 15% $12.6 M $0 14%
97 Federated Investors Inc $2.0 M $4.3 M $6.4 M 9% $10.2 B $0
98 International Paper $2.0 M $20.8 M $22.9 M 29% $124.5 M $-11.5 k 3%
99 Textron Inc $2.0 M $31.3 M $33.4 M 24% $11.8 B $21.0 M
100 Genworth Financial $2.0 M $24.3 M $26.3 M 25% $0 $202.4 M
101 CenturyLink $2.0 M $17.0 M $19.0 M 32% $288.6 M $0
102 Dow Chemical $2.0 M $43.6 M $45.5 M 25% $46.4 M $24.3 M
103 Weyerhaeuser Co $2.0 M $16.7 M $18.7 M 27% $3.8 M $362.4 k
104 DaVita Inc $2.0 M $21.2 M $23.1 M 22% $14.2 M $0 24%
105 Cablevision Systems $1.9 M $2.5 M $4.4 M 10% $235.3 k $0 0%
106 California Dairies Inc $1.9 M $1.2 M $3.1 M 18% $0 $5.0 M
107 Kindred Healthcare $1.9 M $12.8 M $14.7 M 10% $42.2 M $0 22%
108 Coca-Cola Co $1.9 M $30.6 M $32.5 M 28% $191.8 M $0 13%
109 Prudential Financial $1.9 M $43.7 M $45.6 M 26% $1.1 B $2.5 B
110 General Motors $1.9 M $63.5 M $65.4 M 27% $2.6 B $67.4 B
111 Safeway Inc $1.8 M $7.8 M $9.6 M 27% $67.1 k $0 30%
112 Liberty Media $1.8 M $5.7 M $7.5 M 15% $0 $0
113 OSI Restaurant Partners $1.8 M $622.3 k $2.5 M 16% $0 $0
114 Fluor Corp $1.8 M $7.2 M $9.0 M 23% $10.1 B $77.3 k 20%
115 Marathon Oil $1.8 M $32.9 M $34.7 M 20% $-9.7 k $0
116 ConocoPhillips $1.8 M $74.7 M $76.5 M 31% $304.4 M $41.8 k 21%
117 CH2M HILL $1.8 M $2.3 M $4.1 M 28% $7.5 B $25.7 M
118 Entergy Corp $1.8 M $26.9 M $28.6 M 26% $155.6 M $10.2 M 7%
119 Northwestern Mutual $1.8 M $26.6 M $28.4 M 20% $1.1 B $0
120 Devon Energy $1.8 M $7.2 M $9.0 M 14% $0 $0 3%
121 Forest City Enterprises $1.7 M $3.1 M $4.8 M 9% $0 $0
122 General Atomics $1.7 M $14.7 M $16.4 M 18% $10.6 B $375.7 M
123 Express Scripts $1.7 M $8.6 M $10.3 M 13% $2.1 B $0 33%
124 Charles Schwab & Co $1.7 M $15.0 M $16.6 M 14% $2.6 B $0 31%
125 Procter & Gamble $1.7 M $23.3 M $25.0 M 22% $1.8 B $0 23%
126 PepsiCo Inc $1.6 M $25.1 M $26.7 M 26% $981.3 M $0 23%
127 Deutsche Telekom $1.6 M $24.0 M $25.6 M 23% $90.3 M $855.0 k
128 L-3 Communications $1.6 M $26.6 M $28.2 M 22% $35.2 B $0 21%
129 Roche Holdings $1.6 M $42.0 M $43.6 M 25% $305.8 M $0
130 DTE Energy $1.6 M $8.7 M $10.3 M 22% $19.1 M $0 5%
131 Parsons Corp $1.6 M $2.1 M $3.7 M 31% $3.3 B $0
132 Reynolds American $1.6 M $22.6 M $24.2 M 21% $-5.1 k $0 29%
133 US Bancorp $1.6 M $5.1 M $6.6 M 18% $652.7 M $6.8 B 24%
134 Dean Foods $1.5 M $5.2 M $6.7 M 20% $16.4 M $0
135 Harris Corp $1.5 M $18.0 M $19.5 M 20% $1.5 B $0 32%
136 Murray Energy $1.5 M $2.5 M $3.9 M 4% $0 $0
137 Darden Restaurants $1.5 M $6.7 M $8.2 M 13% $90.9 k $0 16%
138 Finmeccanica SpA $1.5 M $31.8 M $33.3 M 16% $7.3 B $0
139 Brown-Forman Corp $1.5 M $3.7 M $5.2 M 7% $0 $0
140 Anadarko Petroleum $1.5 M $16.9 M $18.3 M 11% $2.1 M $0
141 Crawford Group $1.5 M $2.6 M $4.1 M 15% $44.8 M $0
142 EMC Corp $1.5 M $10.4 M $11.8 M 9% $21.5 M $0
143 Peabody Energy $1.4 M $38.8 M $40.3 M 10% $0 $0 6%
144 AMR Corp $1.4 M $32.9 M $34.3 M 33% $19.6 M $0
145 Target Corp $1.4 M $10.8 M $12.2 M 14% $0 $0 27%
146 Energy Future Holdings Corp $1.4 M $21.6 M $23.0 M 19% $49.2 M $3.7 M
147 Corning Inc $1.4 M $5.5 M $6.9 M 16% $9.2 M $9.2 k 0%
148 MacAndrews & Forbes $1.4 M $11.2 M $12.7 M 10% $11.6 B $0
149 Clear Channel Communications $1.4 M $7.1 M $8.5 M 14% $3.5 M $30.6 k
150 SLM Corp $1.4 M $20.4 M $21.8 M 22% $235.8 M $191.6 B
151 Hartford Financial Services $1.4 M $14.7 M $16.0 M 19% $0 $4.1 B
152 Cigna Corp $1.4 M $10.1 M $11.5 M 13% $161.8 M $0 21%
153 CVS/Caremark Corp $1.4 M $42.6 M $43.9 M 17% $3.4 M $0 34%
154 Monsanto Co $1.3 M $42.4 M $43.8 M 15% $12.6 M $424.1 k 20%
155 Edison International $1.3 M $13.5 M $14.8 M 18% $212.5 M $66.9 M
156 Amway/Alticor Inc $1.3 M $2.6 M $4.0 M 7% $1.3 M $0
157 Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold $1.3 M $3.5 M $4.9 M 13% $254.9 k $0
158 Medtronic Inc $1.3 M $24.6 M $26.0 M 20% $659.3 M $0
159 Zurich Financial Services $1.3 M $30.7 M $32.1 M 19% $0 $0
160 Williams Companies $1.3 M $21.1 M $22.4 M 20% $6.9 k $0 11%
161 AmerisourceBergen Corp $1.3 M $7.3 M $8.6 M 16% $4.7 B $0 24%
162 Novartis AG $1.3 M $39.4 M $40.7 M 22% $2.1 B $30.5 M
163 PG&E Corp $1.3 M $87.7 M $89.0 M 18% $64.7 M $28.1 M 17%
164 eBay Inc $1.3 M $10.9 M $12.2 M 16% $9.4 k $0
165 HSBC Holdings $1.3 M $17.4 M $18.7 M 22% $3.9 B $9.9 B
166 Xcel Energy $1.3 M $12.0 M $13.2 M 20% $120.9 M $0 1%
167 Limited Brands $1.3 M $2.9 M $4.2 M 8% $0 $0 28%
168 Nucor Corp $1.3 M $15.7 M $16.9 M 17% $80.6 k $0
169 Boston Scientific Corp $1.3 M $10.4 M $11.7 M 21% $329.7 M $0
170 Nationwide $1.2 M $20.1 M $21.4 M 18% $0 $0
171 Arch Coal $1.2 M $8.6 M $9.9 M 18% $0 $0
172 Apollo Group $1.2 M $4.4 M $5.6 M 9% $4.3 M $5.3 B 34%
173 Progress Energy $1.2 M $11.3 M $12.5 M 18% $16.6 M $200.0 M 2%
174 PPL Corp $1.2 M $7.7 M $8.9 M 12% $48.2 M $19.1 M 3%
175 Emerson $1.2 M $6.1 M $7.3 M 9% $35.1 M $1.7 M 32%
176 EnergySolutions Inc $1.2 M $3.3 M $4.4 M 8% $328.0 M $0
177 Dell Inc $1.2 M $15.0 M $16.2 M 11% $8.0 B $3.2 M
178 Jacobs Engineering Group $1.2 M $3.3 M $4.4 M 17% $8.6 B $220.2 k 35%
179 Computer Sciences Corp $1.2 M $8.3 M $9.5 M 16% $19.9 B $-157.5 k
180 Sprint Nextel $1.2 M $17.8 M $19.0 M 22% $814.4 M $7.3 M
181 Shaw Group $1.2 M $7.9 M $9.0 M 10% $6.8 B $0
182 Cintas Corp $1.2 M $1.2 M $2.3 M 4% $17.3 M $500.0
183 Bayer AG $1.1 M $37.7 M $38.9 M 23% $158.8 M $1.8 M
184 General Mills $1.1 M $5.6 M $6.7 M 11% $1.3 B $343.0 k 20%
185 Tyco International $1.1 M $12.3 M $13.5 M 14% $633.8 M $161.0
186 Timken Co $1.1 M $3.4 M $4.5 M 7% $188.2 M $6.7 M
187 National Amusements Inc $1.1 M $42.6 M $43.7 M 23% $9.2 M $0
188 Walgreen Co $1.1 M $10.4 M $11.6 M 21% $227.6 k $0 31%
189 Pacific Mutual Holding $1.1 M $4.8 M $5.9 M 15% $0 $0
190 Level 3 Communications $1.1 M $3.0 M $4.1 M 7% $73.9 M $0
191 Motorola Solutions $1.1 M $21.2 M $20.0 M 21% $1.6 B $0
192 Cash America International $1.1 M $3.8 M $4.9 M 16% $0 $0
193 Land O'Lakes $1.1 M $4.2 M $5.3 M 19% $407.1 M $8.5 M
194 Intuit $1.1 M $12.8 M $13.9 M 11% $887.7 k $0
195 US Steel $1.1 M $22.3 M $23.4 M 17% $50.9 k $0
196 Allstate Insurance $1.1 M $22.3 M $23.4 M 20% $0 $0
197 BASF SE $1.1 M $7.7 M $8.8 M 45% $22.6 k $30.6 M
198 TIAA-CREF $1.1 M $9.4 M $10.4 M 19% $92.7 M $0
199 Cargill $1.1 M $8.5 M $9.6 M 14% $1.1 B $5.4 B
200 Halliburton Co $1.1 M $3.1 M $4.2 M 17% $934.7 k $0 23%
Average $3.0 M $25.9 M $28.9 M 27% $6.4 B $15.8 B 19%
Total $597.4 M $5.2 B $5.8 B $1.3 T $3.2 T

Data Dictionary

Column
Definition
Rank
The organization's rank, by total contributions
Organization
The organization's name, with a link to their Influence Explorer profile
Contributions
Includes PAC and individual contributions to federal committees made between Jan. 1, 2007 and Dec. 31, 2012. Data downloaded from the Center for Responsive Politics and analyzed by the Sunlight Foundation.
Lobbying
Disclosed spending on federal lobbying from 2007 to 2012. Data downloaded from the Center for Responsive Politics and analyzed by the Sunlight Foundation.
Total Influence
Sum of the contribution and lobbying totals.
Hill Coverage
Average percentage of incumbent members of Congress receiving contributions from the organization over the course of the 2008, 2010 and 2012 election cycles.
Federal Business
Company business generated or facilitated by the federal government. Includes federal contracts, foreign sales created through the Export-Import Bank, Federal Reserve purchases of asset-backed securities and payments made to counter-parties of American International Group after the federal government took over the insurance giant.
Federal Support
Government support for businesses, including loans, loan guarantees, grants, and money advanced to companies in the aftermath of the financial crisis through an array of mechanisms including the Capital Purchase Program, the Auto Industry Financing Program, the Targeted Investment Program, the Term Auction Facility, the Term Securities Lending Facility, the Commercial Paper Funding Facility, the Term Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility and the Asset-Backed Commercial Paper Money Market Mutual Fund Liquidity Facility.
Effective Tax Rate
Citizens for Tax Justice analyzed the effective corporate tax rate for 125 publicly traded companies covering the years 2008 through 2013. Many of the companies CTJ analyzed were also companies Sunlight examined. CTJ has much more information on corporate taxation in their Sorry State of Corporate Taxation report.
State Subsidies
Good Jobs First tracks state and local subsidies won by for-profit companies. Many of the companies examined in the Fixed Fortunes study also have won subsidies from state and local governments. Click the link to see those subsidies for each company listed above, or visit the Good Jobs First\nSubsidy Tracker to learn more.